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Freud Thought The Irish Were Too Difficult To Figure Out
It is amazing how we hold certain folks in history out in such high-esteem. Did you know that Freud may not have been the super psychologist we believe he was? I…
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Mind Is Found Throughout Life

Mind exists throughout life. Even each cell in the body, for example, has a mind of its own - it knows what its function is, and it proceeds to fulfill it. The bee seeks out nectar and makes honeycombs, the ant plays its part in the colony, and plants use sunshine, send down roots, and make leaves. This is to say that all living things have a mind of their own.A person's mind is intimately related to the brain, but the two are not identical. When you come to think of it, could any two things be more unlike than a piece of brain tissue, on one hand, and a thought, feeling, or sensation, on the other hand. What it is that creates thoughts, images, etc., in the mind, in response to something in brain tissue, is not known. We can study nerves and synapses to the nth degree, and we will still not see the thoughts.In some mysterious way, something in the brain activates something in the mind - memories, thoughts, feelings, plans, intentions, fantasies, impulses, and so on. Only living things have a mind - when life goes, the mind goes, too.The mind is not accessible by the senses. You can't observe it directly, the way you can observe the brain. By looking at a bee's brain, there is no way to see its intention to search for nectar or, by looking at an ant's brain, to see the ant's intention to serve the queen.Similarly, what we see, hear, touch, smell, and taste is a function of mind, just as mysterious. What we see, for example, begins with light striking the retina. The retina responds by creating nerve impulses, which travel to the brain. In the brain, life responds to the nerve impulses by creating an image, which is immaterial, without substance. The image is experienced in the mind by the organism. Experience is a feature of life.A thought is a most peculiar thing. Before a sentence is spoken, the speaker knows what he or she wants to say and then proceeds to say it. This is to say that the thought exists as a whole before it is put into words. Although a sentence has a beginning, middle, and end - that is, it exists in time - the thought that precedes the sentence does not exist in time. Furthermore, it does not take up space. Time operates in sequence, continuously. It is like computer data, which is also sequential. The mind, however, does not operate sequentially. Rather, it is like the hard disk, which accesses data randomly.Does the mind have boundaries? If it does have boundaries, are the boundaries of the mind the same as the boundaries of the brain? Does thought have dimensions? Does an impulse or a thought arise in consciousness with a beginning, middle, and end? No, an impulse or a thought is not time-bound with a beginning, middle, and end. Even when it is put into words it is different from the words that express it.Words must not be confused with the things that they represent. Words are powerful because they simplify reality. Any word is a simple and perfect symbol representing a complex and imperfect reality. For example consider an apple. The dictionary definition of an apple is "the fleshy, rounded, red or yellow or green, edible fruit of a tree of the rose family." Every apple conforms perfectly to this definition. There is no apple that isn't an apple in these terms. The word "apple" is an idea that includes all apples.The definition is constructed so as to be perfect - no apples are excluded from it. Now consider an actual apple. Does it have soft spots? Does it have variation in color? What is its shape? How does it taste? Are there cuts and blemishes? Is it partially eaten? It is easy to see that any real apple is unique, individual, and imperfect. It is enormously complex, whereas the word that names it is simple. Every apple is much more than the definition of it. Even an exhaustive description will not include minute variations in color, texture, and shape.We can see, then, that every word and every description are symbols representing something real, but every real thing is much more than any word that names it or any words that describe it. Every person is much more than any word that names him or her or any words that describe him or her.Since words are perfect and simple, the mind is led to think that real things other than words can be perfect and simple, whereas, in fact, they are always imperfect and complex. Under the sway of this misleading thinking, I think that I can always be right, whereas I will often be wrong. I think that I can know everything, whereas I can know only some things. I think that I can be free of mistakes, whereas I will make mistakes. I think that I can always be intelligent, whereas I will often be unintelligent. It is the mind's facility for language-making that leads us to expect perfection and simplicity in a world of imperfect, complex reality.The fact that words and descriptions exist leads us to think that they pervade reality outside of the mind, as if the words said everything about the things they represent. On the contrary, words exist only in the mind, the human mind. There is a total, complete difference between words and what they represent. Words are words, and what they represent is what they represent, and the relationship between the two is a creation of the mind. 共3页: 上一页 1 [2] [3] 下一页

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